Hatchling Care:

-Enclosure: Aquariums, Storage Bins, and Tortoise Tables. I personally recommend Coconut Coir as the substrate but there are other good alternatives out there as well. The enclosure must contain a shallow food and water dish. It is also a good idea to provide a humid hide for your tortoise. The humidity will help not only help to hydrate your tort but it will help with preventing pyramiding. 

-Temperature/Humidity: Basking spot of 95-100, warm side 85-90, cool side 75-80 (A hatchling should never be exposed to temperatures below 70 degrees. Humidity is an important part (especially for hatchlings) when raising tortoises. It's best to have the humidity somewhere in the 60-80% range. It is very difficult to keep the humidity up in the enclosure. Providing a humid hide can solve that issue as they will spend most of their time in the hide anyways. Misters and Foggers are also effective. 

-Soakings: Soakings are very important when it comes to dealing with hatchlings. Soak your tort(s) in warm shallow water once a day for at least 15-20 minutes. This can be cut back to a few times a week as your tortoise gets older. Soakings will help hydrate your tortoise and prevent pyramiding as well.

-UVB: Your tortoise should be exposed to sunlight or UV. This can be done by providing your tortoise with a UVB Bulb or simply taking your tortoise outside for a few hours each day. Offer your tortoise a source of Calcium once a week. The Calcium combined with the UVB will help with your tortoises' shell development.

-Diet: Providing your tortoise with a well-rounded diet is key to successful growth and progression in your tortoises life. Good foods for tortoises include: Spring Mix Lettuce, Weeds, Grass, Leaves, Mazuri, Cactus, etc. Hay can be offered as well but I only recommend it for adult torts.

Recommended Material List:

There is more than one way to properly care for a tortoise. These are just some basic materials I recommend. Materials will vary depending on what type of set-up you choose to go with.

-Basking Bulb (Wattage will depend on your enclosure type and size)

-UVB Bulb (unless outside)

-CHE (Ceramic Heat Emitter)

-Shallow food and water dish

-Substrate (Coconut Coir and/or Cypress Mulch)

-Log Hide or other humid hide

-Thermometer and Hygrometer (Temp Guns are HIGHLY recommended) 


-Diet: Like the hatchlings, a varied diet is the best diet. It's best for adults to have a yard to graze on. When that is not the case Mazuri and grass hays are a great substitute.

-Soakings: Adults do not need to be soaked. Just make sure they always have constant access to clean water. During the warmer months it's nice for them to have a small pond to cool off in or a mud pit to wallow in. 

-Temperature: Overall Adults are much easier to care for than hatchlings. Temperature is still important though. Although adults can withstand a wider range of temperatures, a heated shelter is a must during the cold months as they can develop respiratory infections if exposed to harsh weather. The Testudo species (Greeks and Russians) handle cooler temps much better than the Africans (Leopards and Sulcatas) but they do not do well in excessive heat. Make sure tortoises are able to cool down when needed. Shade is a must and to help things further spray down the area or install a misting system.